Seljuk bin Waqaq, a Turkish Tribal Chief, had become a General through his hard work. They migrated with the tribes from Turkestan to Chand area of Mawara’ al-Nahr. After converting to Islam, the Seljuks settled in the border areas of Mawara’ al-Nahr. After Seljuk’s death, his four sons, Arsalan, Michael, Younus and Musa, spread all over. The borders of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi,s treatory was close to the Seljuks. He invited Arsalan bin Seljuk on a friendly invitation and inquired about his power. He was later imprisoned in Kalinga Castle. In this imprisonment Arsalan died after seven years of imprisonment. After his death, Mahmood Ghaznavi made a treaty with the Seljuks and allowed them to stay in Khorasan. He kept silence in the life of Mahmud Ghaznavi.
Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi used to recite Durood Sharif on Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) one lakh times daily. One night he visited Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) in the dream. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught them “Duroodalkhi” in a dream and said, “Recite it once after the morning prayers, then you will get the reward of reciting Durood a hundred thousand times. Mahmood Ghaznavi made this great blessing public. He urged other Muslims to read as well. The more times this Durood Sharif is recited, the more times it will be rewarded.
Sultan Mahmood of Ghazni, like his successor Shahab-ud-Din Ghauri, did not pay much attention to establishing a large government over all the conquered territories. Despite this, it is said that he wanted to make Ghazni an Islamic center. He wanted to end idolatry. He turned to India for the fulfillment of his purpose. He launched several attacks on India via NWFP (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). It carried out its first attack in 1000 on Thursday, November 27, according to 8 Muharram 392 AH. Mahmood Ghaznavi made his second attack on Jaipal near Peshawar. Fifteen thousand soldiers of Raja Jayapal’s army were killed. Raja Jaipal was arrested along with his entire family. Raja Jayapal gave fifty more elephants and got them released from captivity and after appointing his son Anandpal as his successor, he resigned from the government. In the beginning, Jaipal used to attack Kabul.
In 1004, Sultan Mahmood of Ghazni again turned to India. He crossed the Indus and attacked Bhatia in Jhelum and was victorious. Due to the monsoon rains, many of Mahmood Ghaznavi’s wealth and belongings were washed away.
A year later, Mahmood Ghaznavi planned to attack Multan, led by an Ismaili. Raja Anand Pal did not allow Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi to pass through his territory. Despite this, Multan was conquered. The attacks continued. Now Mahmood Ghaznavi’s fame had spread to Egypt. In 1008, Mahmood Ghaznavi invaded Punjab, defeated Anandpal and captured the temple of Kangra (Himachal Pradesh). There was an immense treasure in this temple. Mahmood Ghaznavi got from this temple one hundred and eighty kilograms of gold, two tons of gold, coins worth seventy million dirhams and a complete house made of silver. In 1012, Thanir, the old capital of Raja Harsh, was attacked by Sultan Mahmood of Ghazni, north of Delhi. Raja Anandpal’s government was now shortened to East Punjab. He offered Mahmood Ghaznavi jewels, jazia and more elephants but Mahmood Ghaznavi turned down the offer. Conquered Thanir and returned.
to be continued..
Research and Writing: Muhammad Sajjad Munir
(The famous Islamic conqueror Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi who is remembered as an idol breaker. A brief history of Mahmood Ghaznavi is given in three parts. Thanks)
Refrences: India A History, Majmoo-o-Wazaef Fikri, Musalman Fateheen by Dr. Nazir Ahmad Paracha